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There’s proof of genetic progress

Genomic proofs give us the confidence to use exciting sires sooner! You can rest assured these bulls will deliver on their genetic promises because genomic testing provides an immediate reliability of around 70% for production, health and conformation traits.

You might be wondering, what are the different genomic sire options? And how do they progress from their first release to daughter-proven status? Let’s break it down…

Alta ADVANTAGE

Our newest sires are available only to our loyal Alta ADVANTAGE partner herds. These Alta ADVANTAGE only sires offer diverse trait specialties and elite rankings on many different customized genetic plans.

When a bull is first old enough to be collected, he simply won’t produce enough semen to be readily available to all farms around the globe. So while we work to build semen inventory, we give our loyal Alta ADVANTAGE partner herds priority access to these elite, new sires that best fit their customized genetic plans.

G-STARS

Once a bull starts producing enough semen, he is added to the G-STAR sire list. Many new G-STAR bulls are readily available this proof round. Among these sires are a wide array of trait outliers, and high ranks to fit your genetic plan.

FUTURE STARS

About a year after a bull is first released, we have actual, proven results for both sire fertility and calving ease. We gather this data, analyze the results, and award the FUTURE STAR designation to only the bulls that have proven results. These sires have real pregnancy check observations that prove they’re above average for sire fertility. They also have calves born already, and their calving ease data shows them to be less than 8% for sire calving ease.

FUTURE STARS are the way to go if you want the benefits of elite genomics but prefer the added peace of mind of proven sire fertility and calving ease. You may give up some production and health as compared to the available G-STAR or ADVANTAGE only sires. But you gain peace of mind knowing that you’re upping your chances for a pregnancy and a live calf resulting from an easier calving. Because of the known calving ability, FUTURE STARS are often a good option to use on heifers.

For proof of progress, compare the genetic averages

Now that you know the difference between each genomic sire option, and the progression a bull could make as he matures, compare the average genetic level of each group in the table below. You’ll see that the newest, Alta ADVANTAGE bulls have the highest genetic averages – especially for the money-making production and health traits. They’re followed by the G-STAR sires, and then by the more highly reliable FUTURE STARS. You’ll also see the comparison to daughter-proven sire averages, just for reference.

April 2019 program averagesTPIMilkProtFatPTATUDCFLCPLDPRSCS
Alta ADVANTAGE2759156964921.551.680.756.72.02.74
G-STAR2690156062851.751.810.975.91.22.77
FUTURE STAR2556146856701.661.710.985.01.32.83
DAUGHTER-PROVEN2436132348621.371.490.794.21.22.81

Despite the big difference in genetic averages between the genomic lists and daughter-proven averages, it’s important to note that every single bull atop our current daughter-proven list was once a part of the G-STAR and/or FUTURE STAR lists. This just shows how much, and how fast we’re making genetic progress!

The track record is significant for our current genomic favorites. Each proof round, we see these genomic bulls deliver on their initial predictions, and eventually graduate to daughter-proven success.

More proof of genetic progress

We can take this comparison, and example of genetic progress one step further. For the sake of simplicity, let’s use TPI as an index to do a side-by-side comparison of our top daughter-proven sires and our top genomic-proven bulls.

Both lists have tremendous options to use, and many of these daughter-proven sires have even become household names around the world over the past few years. But despite that fact, the genomic-proven list simply outranks our daughter-proven group by a significant amount.

APRIL 2019
Top daughter-proven sires

Sire CodeNameTPI
11HO11478AltaLEAF2673
11HO11523AltaHOTSHOT2645
11HO11725AltaAMULET2598
11HO11499AltaMEGLO2580
11HO11758AltaNIXER2580
11HO11531AltaSABRE2571
11HO11437AltaSPRING2570
11HO11718AltaTURNKEY2560
11HO11493AltaHOTROD2558
11HO11566AltaFOUNDER2549
Average 2588

APRIL 2019
Top
genomic-proven sires

Sire NameCodeTPI
11HO12286AltaROBERT2845
11HO12327AltaMORRIS2842
11HO12209AltaHOTJOB2823
11HO12240AltaMILESTONE2823
11HO12323AltaKLAEBO2820
11HO12352AltaGOMEZ2815
11HO12293AltaBUNDLE2803
11HO12366AltaKISS2801
11HO12180AltaDATELINE2792
11HO12285AltaNIXIE2792
Average2816

Put your genetics into action

With that in mind, have confidence to use a team of sires from the Alta ADVANTAGE, G-STAR or FUTURE STAR lists. Alternatively, if you prefer the peace of mind from higher-reliability proven sires, you’ll certainly find the right bulls to fit your needs among that list.

Select a group of bulls that meet your customized goals for production, health and conformation, and you will drive your progress to match your current situation and future goals.

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A sire’s progression from new to daughter-proven

Genomic proofs give us the confidence to use exciting sires sooner! You can rest assured these bulls will deliver on their genetic promises because genomic testing provides an immediate reliability of around 70% for production, health and conformation traits.

You might be wondering, what are the different genomic sire options? And how do they progress from their first release to daughter-proven status? Let’s break it down…

Alta ADVANTAGE logo

Alta ADVANTAGE

Our newest sires are available only to our loyal Alta ADVANTAGE partner herds. These Alta ADVANTAGE only sires offer diverse trait specialties and elite rankings on many different customized genetic plans.

When a bull is first old enough to be collected, he simply won’t produce enough semen to be readily available to all farms around the globe. So while we work to build semen inventory, we give our loyal Alta ADVANTAGE partner herds priority access to these elite, new sires that best fit their customized genetic plans.

Alta G-STAR logo - fast forward genetic progress

G-STARS

Once a bull starts producing enough semen, he is added to the G-STAR sire list. Many new G-STAR bulls are readily available this proof round. Among these sires are a wide array of trait outliers, and high ranks to fit your genetic plan.

Alta FUTURE STAR logo - calving ease and fertility assured

FUTURE STARS

About a year after a bull is first released, we know results for both sire fertility and calving ease. We gather this data and analyze the results. We then award the FUTURE STAR designation to only the bulls that prove themselves above average for sire fertility and have real observations that say he’s less than 8% for sire calving ease.

FUTURE STARS are the way to go if you want the benefits of elite genomics, but prefer the added peace of mind of proven sire fertility and calving ease. You may give up some production and health as compared to the available G-STAR or ADVANTAGE only sires. But you gain peace of mind knowing that you’re upping your chances for a pregnancy and a live calf resulting from an easier calving. Because of the known calving ability, FUTURE STARS are ideal options to use on heifers.

That explains the progression a bull makes as a genomic-proven sire. So you now know the difference between each genomic sire option. With that in mind, compare the average genetic level of each group in the table below.

You’ll see the newest, Alta ADVANTAGE bulls have the highest genetic averages. That’s followed by the G-STAR sires, and then by the more highly reliable FUTURE STARS. You’ll also see the comparison to daughter-proven sire averages, just for reference.

December 2018 program averagesTPIMilkProtFatPTATUDCFLCPLDPRSCS
Alta ADVANTAGE2794175068911.651.710.766.52.52.71
G-STAR2708157362841.921.891.125.52.12.80
FUTURE STAR2573161360721.521.490.874.71.92.85
DAUGHTER-PROVEN2391113142561.371.560.793.91.72.82

Despite the big difference in genetic averages between the genomic lists and daughter-proven averages, it’s important to note that every single bull atop our current daughter-proven list was once a part of the G-STAR and/or FUTURE STAR lists.

The track record is significant for our current genomic favorites. Each proof round, we see these genomic bulls deliver on their initial predictions, and eventually graduate to daughter-proven success.

 Put your genetics into action

With that in mind, have confidence to use a team of sires from the Alta ADVANTAGE, G-STAR or FUTURE STAR lists. Alternatively, if you prefer the peace of mind from higher-reliability proven sires, you’ll certainly find the right bulls to fit your needs among that list.

Select a group of bulls that meet your customized goals for production, health and conformation so you drive your progress to match your current situation and future goals.

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What you need to know about August proofs

1. You’ve got a lot of high-ranking, brand-new sire options!

Never before have you had access to more new sires atop the Alta ADVANTAGE, G-STAR, daughter-proven, and Alta511 sexed sire lists! These sires are diverse in what they offer, and they are readily available!

2. You can now take a precision approach to herd fertility management

Starting this proof round, we give you options to most accurately and efficiently manage your herd’s fertility. (Read more about it HERE).

You can now select the right genetics for your herd based on your breeding strategy. We’ve released a sire fertility rating for conventional semen, and a separate sire fertility evaluation based on breedings with sexed semen.

These separate, and lowly correlated ratings will help you create more pregnancies by using the right sire fertility evaluation for your strategy and situation.

The Alta 511 CONCEPT PLUS logo designates which bulls are high for sexed semen fertility

Know which bulls will give you highest fertility using Alta511 SexedULTRA semen by finding this 511 CONCEPT PLUS designation on a bull’s individual page on Alta Bull Search.

The Alta CONCEPT PLUS logo designates which bulls are high for conventional semen sire fertility

The industry’s most accurate sire fertility evaluation, CONCEPT PLUS designates whether a bull offers elite fertility on conventional breedings.

3. Some proof numbers were adjusted

  • NM$the index has new weights, and the average change across the industry meant a general increase of about 10 NM$. But many individual bulls changed more than that!
  • DPR – to account for the entire industry DPR drop that happened in April, the average DPR went up this proof round in the following amounts:
    • Holsteins: approximately +1.4 DPR increase
    • Jerseys: approximately +0.5 DPR increase
  • TPI – the average bull increased about 25 TPI points. However, several bulls atop our daughter-proven lineup increased 100 points or more!

4. The most efficient way to reach your genetic and reproductive goals is to set and follow your own, customized genetic plan.

Work with your trusted Alta advisor to set your strategy, and see how you can implement the exciting, new sire options and approach to precision fertility management in your herd.

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Sire selection vs. mating

“What is the true value of a mating program?”

Many producers around the world have used a mating program within their herd for many years. However, not all producers have put that keen focus on SIRE SELECTION. If you are in that same boat, you may be missing out on the best genetics to drive profitability on your farm.

Selection vs. mating – which is more important?

Before answering this question, it is important to realize what both of these terms mean.

SELECTION – The process of documenting genetic goals to determine which bulls will help you achieve those goals the fastest. In other words, it is identifying which bulls from the available population will be utilized in your herd.

MATING – The process of choosing which individual bull (of those selected for use in your herd) should be used on each individual cow.

Mating programs generally correct problematic type traits of a cow by using a bull whose trait strengths match a cow’s weaknesses. The goal of mating is to breed a consistent herd of cows. There is great merit in consistency, but it’s easy to see that when the right sires are not SELECTED, then MATING has little impact. If you desire to improve the udders in your herd, and only select sires with poor Udder Composite (UDC), you will not improve udders, regardless of whether your cows are mated or not.

Another frequently overlooked point is that even when you SELECT the right bulls, mating also has little impact! For example, if you select only the best UDC sires for your herd, the effect of individual matings will be minimized. Even if there was no mating program in place, you would still be improving udders in your herd simply by using those udder-improving sires.

Are you sacrificing genetic progress?

The value of a mating program is questioned by many dairy farmers. One in particular, who we’ll call Joe, wants to improve the production and health of his herd. With a nice, consistent group of cows, he has determined that the conformation of his herd is already more than adequate. (This is a common thought. You too can test this in your herd by asking yourself or your herdsman how many cows have been culled for conformation reasons in the past month or past year.) For many years, Joe has had his cows mated, but never put much thought into selection.

In Joe’s case, the mating program was run by allowing any bulls from the available lineup who were at least +500 PTAM and >1.0 UDC to be individually mated to each cow. This process meant semen from at least 20 different sires always remained in the tank. Although the topic of this article is not to discuss how many sires should be used at a given time, clearly having that many bulls increases the likelihood of recording errors and reduces efficiency for the breeders.

So, will Joe make more genetic progress for production and health by continuing his current method of mating without selection? Or would he be better off selecting a group of 5-8 bulls that meet his production & health goals, and randomly using those sires within his herd? Hopefully the answer is becoming clear.

Proof in examples

To break it down in the simplest form, if you want to use two different sires on two different cows, you have two options. The first option, shown below in blue, is to mate Cow 1 to Sire A, and Cow 2 to Sire B. The second option, shown in green, is to mate Cow 1 to Sire B and Cow 2 to Sire A.

Sire vs Cow Comparison

Within the table, you can see the resulting offspring’s parent average figures for PTAM and UDC. As you can see, the offspring genetic average for PTAM and UDC are exactly the same, regardless of which cow is mated to which bull. Mating option 1 will give more consistency between daughters, but mating option 2 yields exactly the same genetic average between offspring.

So once you select certain bulls, the average genetic progress of your herd will be the same in the next generation whether the group of bulls are mated to individual cows, or if one bull is randomly selected for use each day of the week.

In one more example, let’s say Joe does an experiment on his farm. He randomly selects half of his herd to breed to Group A sires, and the other half of the herd to Group B sires. Just for the fun of it, we will say that the Group B sires are mated with a traditional program, and the Group A sires are randomly selected, with one bull being used each day of the week.

Group A: 5 sires that average +100 CFP and +4.0 PL

Group B: 5 sires that average +30 CFP and 0.0 PL

The offspring from Group A sires will average 70 lbs more CFP and four extra productive months in the herd than daughters of Group B sires – even though Group A was randomly bred with no mating program. If both groups were individually mated, the difference between the offspring of each group would still be exactly the same. Daughters of Group A sires will still yield 70 lbs more CFP and four more productive months in the herd than daughters of Group B sires!

What is the value in mating programs?

The quick answer from a purely genetic standpoint is that the value in mating is minimal at best. But there are a couple benefits.

First of all, the mating staff is often the same staff with whom you set your genetic goals.  Having people you trust help you design and build your genetic program is extremely important.

The second value of a mating program comes through inbreeding protection.  We do not want daughters of a given bull to be bred to their brother, uncle, nephew, or worse yet their father himself!  Mating programs do a good job of reducing inbreeding within your herd. However, in order to maximize this value from a mating program you must have two things in good order on your dairy:

  1. Your Identification must be accurate – not knowing the real sire of a cow, makes inbreeding protection impossible.
  2. The technicians must closely follow the mating recommendations. There are way too many herds that go through the process of mating the cows, but very few of those mates are actually followed.

 

This article is not written to discourage anyone from mating. Mating can help create a consistent group of cows. And for those interested in breeding a “great” cow, protecting faults is important.

However, if inbreeding prevention is the reason for mating, you must ask yourself if it is still necessary to have someone look at cows to mate them. Both a pen mating, which tells which bulls should be avoided on an individual animal, or pen of animals, and a pedigree mating are effective options to minimize inbreeding.

Drive genetic progress – put a plan in place

There are two important concepts to remember when setting genetic goals, and selecting bulls that fit those goals.

  1. We cannot mate our way out of a bad selection decision
  2. When you select the proper bulls to fit your genetic plan, you will maximize genetic progress, even with no individual matings. However it is good practice to utilize a pedigree or pen mating to ensure inbreeding is managed.

The most important concept to remember is that genetic progress is driven by the goals you set and the bulls you use on your dairy – not the individual cows to which those bulls are mated.

So in order to maximize genetic progress and profitability on your farm, be sure to spend at least as much time setting your genetic goals and defining your selection program as you do on your mating program

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Two questions that will transform the way you breed your herd

There’s no other dairy farm in the world exactly like yours. So it’s important to ask yourself a couple questions to determine your ideal breeding goals.

You could use one of the US industry standard indexes to select the genetics for your herd. Their split weights on production, health and conformation will certainly help you make genetic gains in your herd. But will that progress actually match your farm’s current situation and future plans?

As a reminder, the following charts show the weights for the two most common US genetic indexes.

TPI:
Image to show the weights on production, health and type for the TPI Index
NM:
A bar showing the breakdown weights of Net Merit $ as 45% on Production traits, 40% on health traits and 15% on type traits

Since your farm is unique, your best option is to create your own customized genetic plan to get the right genetics to match your goals.

Ask yourself these two important questions to decide which traits to emphasize in your genetic plan.

1. How do you get paid for your milk?

The majority of dairy producers make their main profit from the sale of milk. How that milk is priced varies greatly from one part of the country to another. Most milk produced in Florida is sold for fluid consumption, while much of Wisconsin’s milk goes into making cheese. The milk from some farms goes strictly into butter. Others’ is made into ice cream. Many cooperatives also pay premiums for low somatic cell counts.

Regardless where you ship your milk, the simple way to maximize your milk check is to select the right genetics to match your situation. To explain this, we focus in on the production traits of your genetic plan, which include milk, fat and protein.

If your farm’s milk is made into cheese, you’re likely paid on components, rather than total fluid volume. In that case, selection emphasis on protein will garner your greatest return on genetic investment.

If you farm in a fluid milk market, strict selection for NM$ could actually hinder your progress since NM$ includes a negative weighting on total pounds of milk.

Management practices play the largest role in the performance you see, but the right genetic choices will aid your future profit potential. For example, it takes top-level management practices to achieve ideal somatic cell counts. Yet, if your milk company offers milk quality premiums, genetic selection for low Somatic Cell Score is a logical choice to boost the benefits of your management even further.

Don’t leave dollars on the table. Within your genetic plan, make sure you emphasize the production traits to match how you get paid for your milk.

2. Why do your cows leave the herd?

Regardless if you are in expansion mode or maintaining steady numbers, some animals will leave your herd for one reason or another.

If you’re gradually growing to prepare for a future expansion project, you’ll benefit from heavier genetic selection emphasis on traits like Productive Life. This will keep your cattle numbers on the rise by creating healthier, longer-living cows.

Selection for CONCEPT PLUS high sire fertility will help you create more pregnancies now. Selection for fertility traits like Daughter Pregnancy Rate will help you create a next generation of more fertile females. If you focus on both male and female fertility you will end up with the additional replacements you’ll need.

On the flip side, if your farm is at max capacity with more replacements than you can accommodate, different traits will make a more profitable impact. If your farm sells extra springing heifers or fresh two-year-olds for dairy purposes, you know that buyers choose the stronger, well-grown animals with ideal feet and legs and favorable udders. In that case, a heavier selection emphasis on Udder Composite and Foot & Leg Composite can provide profitable returns on your genetic investment.

However, when your herd size is steady and you don’t sell extra heifers for dairy purposes, it’s important to question your selection for conformation traits. How many cows have you culled in the past year for poor udders or feet and legs?

If the answer is none, you could be limiting your future profitability.

AI companies already provide you with a high level of selection intensity for conformation. Their sire criteria often uses those industry standard indexes with 26% or 16% emphasis on conformation.

If you emphasize conformation traits, but you don’t cull any animals for poor udders or feet and legs, you are missing out on future profits. When you put your weight on conformation, your sacrifice extra selection for production, improved health and additional pregnancies.

Consider your genetic plan

There’s no other dairy in the world identical to yours.

Keep that in mind as you choose the genetics to create your next generation. While industry standard selection indexes can improve your genetics, they don’t necessarily align with your farm’s situation and goals.

Think about how you get paid for milk and the main reasons that cows leave your herd. When you customize your genetic plan to fit your farm’s needs, you will maximize your future milk checks and minimize your involuntary culls.

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